I’ve often found the terminology that we use for examining PhD theses slightly misleading. At most universities, the examination is referred to as a viva, drawn from the latin ‘viva voce’ meaning oral examination. Yet, most students and staff refer to the examination as a ‘defence’.
While there is some truth to this description insofar as the viva is an opportunity to defend your project – there is also something profoundly unhelpful and counterproductive about this language. It sets people up to go into their viva voce in a defensive mode. The insinuation of this description is that the examiners will be aggressive and on the offensive. They will attack your work and the best way to prepare yourself is to put on your armour and get ready to fight back.
Approaching the viva as a defence of your work not only puts you into fight or flight mode as you prepare, the feeling of being under attack may also inhibit your performance on the day.
Subtle shifts can make a world of difference. Instead of approaching your viva in a fear-based way, my advice is to reframe it as more of a conversation about your project. This will help release some of the pressure surrounding the viva and allow you to tap into what first inspired you about your research area. A conversation does not have to be unpleasant or uncomfortable, and in fact, it can even be enjoyable.
Reframing the viva as a conversation will allow you to show up differently on the day. It will influence how you carry yourself, how you respond to questions and ultimately, how much you are able to get out of the experience. Considering how hard you’ve worked and how many years you’ve put into this, you owe that to yourself.
So drop the shield and the sword. Leave the fear behind and get ready for a fruitful and productive conversation about your work. Here are a few other things to keep in mind as you start to prepare for your viva:
Don’t lose sight of what you find exciting and enjoyable about the project. Given that you dedicated so much of your time to working on your PhD, the opportunity to have colleagues engage with your work is actually something to look forward to and be excited about. Tapping into your excitement is one of the best antidotes to fear and anxiety.
Failure is Unlikely
The prospect of failure may be your greatest fear – yet statistics reveal that this fear is often overblown in our minds. Very few students actually fail the viva and so it’s very unlikely you will be confronted with this result. The truth is, you wouldn’t have made it this far and your supervisor is unlikely to have let you reach this stage if a fail was likely. Remember, their reputation is on the line as much as yours is and in that sense your fear of failure is likely unfounded.
Your Thesis Isn’t Going to Be Perfect – And it Doesn’t Need to Be
For many, the weight surrounding the viva has a lot to do with the expectation that their thesis must be perfect. After all, this is the culmination of years of research and endless hours of work. Nevertheless, it’s important to remember that the PhD isn’t going to be perfect. Now the good news is that it doesn’t need to be. PhD theses are rarely published as is and the majority will require some form of revision or updating before publication. This is your first major piece of research and not your life’s work. So, try approaching the viva as an opportunity to get helpful feedback on the project and let go of the expectation that it must be perfect.
It’s just the beginning
A lot of the pressure associated with completing the thesis comes from viewing it as the end of a journey. In actuality, this is just the beginning. If you decide to stay in academia, it’ll be the first of many research projects. Likewise, if you decide to go on and do something different, it’ll be the first step on a new path. Even if you end up going into a completely different field, you will have learned a valuable set of life skills that you can draw upon as you go forward. So, however you look at it, it’s certainly not the end
Keep Fight vs Flight Symptoms in Check
While it’s understandable that you may be nervous, remember to pay attention to how that stress shows up in your body. To help keep fight/flight symptoms at bay, take long deep breaths whenever you need to. Have water on hand and drink it regularly. It can also be useful to bring in a notebook with you in order to make a note of key points/questions. Taking notes will enable you to gather your thoughts before responding to questions. This can be a particularly useful technique if you don’t enjoy being put on the spot!
Dress for the Occasion
Rather than picking something standard from your wardrobe for the day, spend some time selecting an outfit. Not only will dressing for the occasion help you exude confidence, it will convey a sense of professionalism to your examiners. If it isn’t feasible for you to buy a new outfit, remember that little flourishes can also go a long way towards boosting your confidence.
As you go into your viva, keep these factors in mind. This will hopefully alleviate the enormity and overwhelm surrounding the task and allow your fears about the viva to dissipate.
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